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20秋《阅读(II)》作业1

阅读:9 更新时间:2020-11-04 10:41:21

20秋《阅读(II)》作业1


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1.Most Americans think that ice cream is as American as baseball and applepie.But ice cream was known long before American was discovered.The Roman emperor Nero may have made a king of ice cream.He hired hundreds of men to bring snow and ice from the mountains.He used it to make cold drinks.Traveler Marco Polo brought back recipes for chilled and frozen milk from China.Hundreds of years later,ice cream reached England.It is said that King Charles I enjoyed that treat very much.There is a story that he bribed his cook to keep the recipe for ice cream a royal secret.Today ice cream is known throughout the world.Americans alone eat more than two billion quarts a year. 问题:Marco Polo is known as ( )
A.a Roman emperor
B.the inventor of ice cream
C.a royal cook
D.a traveler to China
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2.The inventor of spectacles probably lived in the town of Paris, Italy, around 1286, and was almost certainly a craftsman working in glass. But nobody knows his name. We only know this much about him because Friar Giordane preached a sermon one Wednesday morning in February 1306 at a church in Florence. "It's not yet 20 years since there was found the art of making eye-glasses which make for good vision," said the Friar."One of the best arts and most necessary that the world has. So short a time is it since there was invented a new art that never existed. I have seen the man who first invented and created it, and I have talked to him." We know what Friar Giordane said because admirers copied his sermons down as he gave them. The inventor of spectacles apparently kept the method of making them to himself. Perhaps he thought this was the best way of getting money from his invention. But the idea soon got around. As early as 1300, craftsmen in Venice,the centre of Europe's glass industry, were making the new "disks for the eyes".Spectacles at first were only shaped for far-sighted people. Concave lenses, for short-sighted people, were not developed until the late 15th century. Spectacles allowed people to go on reading and studying long after bad eyesight would normally have forced them to give up.They were like a new pair of eyes. The inventor of such a valuable thing should be honored, everyone thought. But for centuries no one had any idea who the inventor really was. So all kinds of candidates were put forward: Dutch, English, German, Italians from rival cities. A fake memorial was erected last century in a church in Florence to honor a man as the true inventor of spectacles-but he never even existed. 问题:The first record of the spectacles is to be found in ( )
A.newspapers
B.church sermons
C.trade reports
D.praises of Jordan
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3.Hemingway was born in 1899 in Oak Park,Illinois,a prosperous suburb of Chicago.His father,a physician,was an enthusiastic hunter and fisheman who taught his son to handle a rod and a gun.Hemingway's respect for these skills and his love of the open air run through his writing.He has tired to capture the point of view,actions,feelings,and speech of men who excel in the activities he admires.In school Hemingway was a good student,with a wide range of interests beyond the classroom.He was known as a boxer,a football player,a member of the swimming team,and manager of the track team.For 3 years he played in the school orchestra.But much of his activity was connected with words,which were to be his lifelong preoccupation.First as reporter,then as editor,he gained experience on the school paper,to which he contributed articles and stories.When Hemingway graduated from high school in 1917,World War I was still being fought.After a few months as a reporter on the Kansas City Star,he sailed for Europe in May,1918,as a volunteer ambulance driver and later transferred to the Italian infantry.Two weeks before his 19th birthday a leg wound brought him close to death.War and death have been recurrent themes in Hemingway's writing.Of war he has said," I thought about Tolstoi and about what a great advantage an experience of war was to a writer.It was one of the major subjects and certainly one of the hardest to write truly of ... " 问题:According to paragraph one, Hemingway learned from his father all of the following except ( )
A.fishing
B.hunting
C.writing
D.love of the open air
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4.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Two Models of Parenting
B.Two child images
C.The role of Pygmalions
D.J.B.Watson and his modern behaviorism
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5.You don't have to set up a foundation or spend hours raising money to help the environment.Joey Gordon-Levitt,16,does his part by simply collecting his newspapers,plastic,and cans-and have them recycled."Everyone should recycle,"the teen star says.Singer and actor Better Midler goes a step further-She picks up other people's garbage.For example,Midler has helped remove truckloads of trash from Fort Tryon Park in New York City.Such simple efforts at trash collection and reduction are catching on.Last year,the Environmental Protection Agency counted 7,500 recycling programs in the US. That's up from just 1,000 programs in 1988.Almost half of the country's population now lives in towns and cities with curbside recycling.So we're on the right track to reducing trash.But we still have a long way to go.In 1994, about 40% of paper products and plastic soda bottles produced in this country were recycled. But only 2% of food packaging was recovered!We also have to work on creating more demand for recycled material.You can help by checking labels-and buying products made from recovered paper, plastic,and metal.Recycling saves resources like water and trees,and cuts down on air pollution.So what are you waiting for?Get to work taking care of our "rock.""If we don't,we'll all have to move to Mars,"says Gordon-Levitt."The only problem is that we don't know how to do that yet!" 问题:The author of the passage suggests that you ( ) to help the environment.
A.set-up a fund
B.raise money
C.recycle trash
D.move to Mars
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6.For a few minutes he (tapped) the switch after each flash.
A.touched
B.painted
C.pressed
D.snapped
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7.You dont have to set up a foundation or spend hours raising money to help the environment.Joey Gordon-Levitt,16,does his part by simply collecting his newspapers,plastic,and cans-and have them recycled."Everyone should recycle,"the teen star says.Singer and actor Better Midler goes a step further-She picks up other people's garbage.For example,Midler has helped remove truckloads of trash from Fort Tryon Park in New York City.Such simple efforts at trash collection and reduction are catching on.Last year,the Environmental Protection Agency counted 7,500 recycling programs in the US. That's up from just 1,000 programs in 1988.Almost half of the country's population now lives in towns and cities with curbside recycling.So we're on the right track to reducing trash.But we still have a long way to go.In 1994, about 40% of paper products and plastic soda bottles produced in this country were recycled. But only 2% of food packaging was recovered!We also have to work on creating more demand for recycled material.You can help by checking labels-and buying products made from recovered paper, plastic,and metal.Recycling saves resources like water and trees,and cuts down on air pollution.So what are you waiting for?Get to work taking care of our "rock.""If we don't,we'll all have to move to Mars,"says Gordon-Levitt."The only problem is that we don't know how to do that yet!" 问题: To help recycle waste material, we can do all of the following except( )
A.creating more demand for recycled material
B.buying products made from recycled paper,plastic and metal
C.collecting uesd things such as paper,plastic and metal
D.using recycled material only in packaging
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8.Astronomers(天文学家) can tell just how hot the surface of the moon gets.The side of the moon toward the sun gets two degrees hotter than boiling water(沸水).The night side reaches 243 degrees below zero(零度).In an eclipse(月蚀),the earth's shadow falls on the moon.Then the moon's temperature may drop 300 degrees in a very short time.A temperature change like this cannot happen on the earth.Why does it happen on the moon?Astronomers think that the surface of the moon is dust.On the earth,rocks store heat from the sun.When the sun goes down,the rocks stay warm.But the dust of the moon cannot store heat.So when the moon gets dark,the heat escapes quickly.The moon gets very cold. 问题:The surface of the moon is probably ( )
A.rock that stores heat
B.dust that stores heat
C.dust that cannot store heat
D.rock that does not store heat
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9.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: The word "malleable" in paragraph one means ( )
A.intelligent
B.powerful
C.adaptable
D.specified
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10.While I was working as a child psychologist,a principal phoned me."I'm baffled,"he said."A child has written an essay called ‘The Properties of the Nucleus.’"His teacher can't understand it.Neither can I."I went to the school and met Mark,an eight-year-old with ginger hair and freckles.He looked like a very ordinary boy to me.I proceeded with the intelligence test."What is Mars?"I asked.Most children his age say,"A chocolate bar."He described the planet in detail.He quickly completed the tests,including a math test for much older children.Then he looked at me as if to say:"Can't you come up with something more difficult?"I had seen gifted children before,but this boy was "off the map"as far as assessing his IQ was concerned.Mark's principle and arranged for Mark to be tutored by a science teacher.But in many ways he was just a normal child.We wanted him to be socially adjusted as well as intellectually outstanding.So we also encouraged him to join the Club Scouts and we kept him in class with kids of his age for the time being.I asked Mark's parents what they thought of him."He can be a pain in the neck,"his mother said."He asks such impossible questions,"she smiled."But we love him dearly."This was crucial.Like the rest of us,gifted children need to be loved.He gained a first-class honors degree from Cambridge,is now chairman of his own computer company and is happily married with two children. 问题:The author and the principal kept the boy in class with kids of his own age because ( )
A.they didn't intend to pamper the talented boy
B.they thought the boy should learn how to put up with less smart kids
C.they tired to set him up as a model for the class
D.they wanted the boy to be more sociable
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11.The history of the Winter Games,however,has been even more troubled than that of the Summer Games.Until 1924 all the winter sports competitions,held every 4 years from 1901 to 1917 and again in 1992,had been in the Scandinavian countries-Sweden,Norway and Finland.The sportsmen of these countries believed that the Winter Games could only be held in the Scandinavian way.Coubertin,himself,was against a separate Winter Olympics as he felt that they would cause trouble within the Olympic movement.However,as winter holidays in the Alps became more and more popular,so did the idea of a truly international Winter Games.The first Winter Olympics were held in Chamonix in 1924,though they were only recognized by the International Olympic Committee as "Olympic" two years later in 1926.Although there were many arguments before them,the 1st Games were a success,but the problems did not end there.In 1935,it was decided by the IOC that ski teachers could not compete in the Olympics because they were professionals.This caused a big argument between the IOC and the International Ski Federation,who agreed with the ski teachers and,as the two organizations could come to an end very soon after their beginning.However,war came and with it an end to the discussions.When the war was finally over,the Winter Games were started up again,as before,in St Moritz in 1948 and the crisis had passed. 问题: Coubertin didn't want to have a separate winter Olympics because ( )
A.the winter games could only be held in the Scandinavian way
B.the winter games could only be held in the Scandinavian countries
C.there had been more trouble in the winter games
D.he was worried about the future of the Olympic movement
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12.Although American civilization took over and replaced the frontier almost a century ago,the heritage of the frontier is still very much alive in the U.S.today.The idea of the frontier still stirs the emotions and imaginations of the American people.Americans continue to be fascinated by the frontier because it has been a particularly important force in shaping their national values.The frontier experience began when the first colonists settled on the east coast of the continent in the 1600s.It ended about 1890 when the last western lands were settled.The American frontier consisted of the relatively unsettled regions of the country.Here,both land and life were more rugged and primitive than in the more settled eastern part.As one frontier area was settled,people began moving farther west into the next unsettled area.By settling one frontier area after another,Americans moved across an entire continent,2,700 miles wide. 问题:The frontier experience began ( )
A.in the 16th century
B.in the 17th century
C.in the 18th century
D.in the 19th century
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13.George Ashmore Fitch was born in Soochow,China in 1883,the son of Presbyterian missionaries George F.and Mary McLllan Fitch.After receiving his B.A.from Wooster College in 1906,Fitch attended Union Theological Seminary in New York.He was made a priest in 1909 and returned to work in Shanghai.When the Nanking Massacre occurred,Fitch was one of the witnesses of the crime.He quickly became active in assisting the Internatinal Committen for the Nanking Safety Zone.Fitch's diary of events of Nanking was carried to Shanghai by the first person able to leave the Nanking after its occupation by the Japanese on December 13,1937.As Fitch has written,"My story created a sensation in Shanghai,for it was the first news of what had happened in the capital since its evacuation,and it was copied and mimeographed and widely distributed there."Fitch's Nanking diary has been published previously but the version of his diary available in the Yale collection differs slightly from the well-publicized version,so excerpts from it have been included in this volume.In 1938 Fitch traveled throughout the United States giving talks about the Nanking Massacre and showing films to document it.He returned to work first in China and then in Korea and China's Taiwan until his retirement in 1961. 问题:Which of the following is a good title for the passage?
A.George A.Fitch's diary
B.George A.Fitch and China
C.The Yale Version of George A.Fitch's Diary
D.G.A.Fitch and His Diary about the Nanking Massacre
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14.His mind had grown suddenly (numb) seconds seemed hours.
A.acute
B.insensitive
C.indifferent
D.painful
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15.No one thought of anything even a little bit like the zipper until Whitecomb L.Judson came along. There were buttons and button-holes, hooks and eyes, laces and buckles. They all took an irritatingly long time to do up, especially when men wore high-laced boots and fashionable ladies squeezed themselves into long corsets. Whitecomb L.Judson's slide-fastener was an out-of-the-blue invention, and no one knows what gave him the idea. No one even knows much about him, except that he was a mechanical engineer living in Chicago and that he patented other inventions, to do with a street railway system and motor-cars. Judson invented the first zipper(called, at the time, a Clasp Locker or Unlocker)in 1891. This ingenious little device looks so simple, and the principle behind it is simple: one row of hooks and eyes slotting neatly into another row by means of a tab. Yet it took 22 years, many improvements and another inventor to make the zipper really practical. 问题:The word "ingenious" means ( )
A.clever
B.admirable
C.important
D.useful
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16.No one thought of anything even a little bit like the zipper until Whitecomb L.Judson came along. There were buttons and button-holes, hooks and eyes, laces and buckles. They all took an irritatingly long time to do up, especially when men wore high-laced boots and fashionable ladies squeezed themselves into long corsets. Whitecomb L.Judson's slide-fastener was an out-of-the-blue invention, and no one knows what gave him the idea. No one even knows much about him, except that he was a mechanical engineer living in Chicago and that he patented other inventions, to do with a street railway system and motor-cars. Judson invented the first zipper(called, at the time, a Clasp Locker or Unlocker)in 1891. This ingenious little device looks so simple, and the principle behind it is simple: one row of hooks and eyes slotting neatly into another row by means of a tab. Yet it took 22 years, many improvements and another inventor to make the zipper really practical. 问题:The first zipper was invented in ( )
A.the end of the 18th century
B.the beginning of the 19th century
C.the end of the 19th century
D.the beginning of the 20th century
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17.Copper(铜)was the first metal that man learned to make.In some mountainous lands there were rocks streaked with green minerals.One day some rocks were accidentally heated by a roaring fire.When the fire burned low,little beads of copper were seen on the rock wall.After that,men heated the rock deliberately to see whether more copper would appear.They soon found a good way to make copper.They would build a trench on a hillside and fill it with charcoal and copper-bearing rock.They covered this furnace with flat stones.They started a wood fire to heat the charcoal and the hot charcoal released copper from the rock.A hot red pool of melted metal formed at the mouth of the trench.When it was cool,the solid metal could be lifted out and cut and pounded into shapes. 问题:Men shaped the copper by( )
A.melting it
B.pounding it
C.breaking it
D.both b and c
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18.Astronomers(天文学家) can tell just how hot the surface of the moon gets.The side of the moon toward the sun gets two degrees hotter than boiling water(沸水).The night side reaches 243 degrees below zero(零度).In an eclipse(月蚀),the earth's shadow falls on the moon.Then the moon's temperature may drop 300 degrees in a very short time.A temperature change like this cannot happen on the earth.Why does it happen on the moon?Astronomers think that the surface of the moon is dust.On the earth,rocks store heat from the sun.When the sun goes down,the rocks stay warm.But the dust of the moon cannot store heat.So when the moon gets dark,the heat escapes quickly.The moon gets very cold.    问题:During an eclipse, the moon is (    )
A.turned away from the sun
B.in the shadow of the sun
C.in the shadow of the earth
D.in direct sunlight
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19.The 12th lunar month in Chinese is called layue(the month to worship all the deities).The 8th day of the 12the lunar month is the Laba Festival.It is treated as the beginning of the Chinese holiday season.After the Laba Festival,people enter into the busy preparation for the Lunar New Year.The main activity of the Laba Festival is cooking and sharing the special laba gruel(laba-zhou).Most people believe it has a close relation to Sakyamuni,the Buddha.He left his comfortable home and set off in search of the final enlightenment.After days of travelling without rest,he collapsed near a river in northern India.He was revived by a wandering shepherdess,who offered him her lunch of family leftovers consisting of sticky cereal,glutinous rice,dates,chestnuts and wild fruit.After consuming this repast,Sakyamuni took a batch and sat under a tree for meditation,where he finally attained enlightenment.The very day was the 8th day of the last lunar month.The meal was the original laba gruel. 问题:The Laba Festival is believed by many to be related to ( )
A.Confucianism
B.Buddhism
C.Taoism
D.Christianity
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20.In 1989,Melissa started Kids F.A.C.E.as an after-school club at her elementary school.The six-member group met each Monday to write letters and plan cleanup activities."We never thought it was anything more than a group of kids coming together so they could talk about the environment,"says Trish Poe,her mother.But then a letter from Milissa to the "Today" show got her club on television in 1990.When other kids heard about the club,they wrote asking how they could get involed.So Melissa,with the help of her mother,who today manages the Kids F.A.C.E.office as executive director,developed a membership book that instructed kids on environmental projects and how to start a club of their own."I felt like I had to write them all back at once because I didn't like what the president did to me.Because I didn't like being ignored...I didn't want the kids to have the same feeling,"says Melissa.Requests for information came from all over the nation.At first,Melissa's parents paid the postage and supply bills for the club,but soon expenses became too high.So the club found a sponsor,War-Mart Inc.,which began underwriting the bimonthly newsletter,Kids F.A.C.E.illustrated,which currently provides environmental updates,suggestions,and ideas to more than 2 million people world wide. 问题:More people wanted to join the club after( )
A.a newspaper interview was made
B.enough letters were distributed
C.they heard about the club from a television show
D.Melissa became an executive director
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