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20秋《阅读(IV)》作业4

阅读:7 更新时间:2020-11-06 09:34:39

20秋《阅读(IV)》作业4


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1.Anyone meeting Matthew Daniels for the first time could easily assume that he is the product of a conventional, even privileged childhood. With his well-spoken manner, his Ivy League education, and his business card reading "President, Massachusetts Family Institute," Mr. Daniels is the picture of youthful American success. But Daniels can tell a story that refutes those assumptions about his childhood. His father abandoned the family when he was 2. His mother took a job as a secretary. But on her way home one evening she was mugged, sustaining injuries that eventually left her unable to work, the family went on welfare. Growing up in New York's Spanish Harliem, Daniels was one of only four white students until ninth grade. Despite a difficult environment, he stayed out of trouble. He even won a full scholarship to Dartmouth College, graduating in 1985. How did he do it? He credits his mother's religious faith. "It's why I didn't end up like the guys in my neighborhood," he says. "Some went to prison." Although his father, a writer, didn't support the family, he maintained contact with his son, emphasizing the importance of books and education. Because of his experience, Daniels has become a passionate advocate of the two-parent family. He sees it as an institution under cultural siege, generally supported by "the person in the street" but too often dismissed by those in academic and media circles. Some of the groups, he says, have miscalculated the social consequences of "trying to convince people that there are all sorts of" alternative family forms. Even during law school, he encountered professors who were "openly hostile to the idea that we need two-parent families to have a healthy society." Reporters and academics may not be the only ones ambivalent about marriage. A new study of college textbooks finds that many texts on marriage paint a pessimistic view. They emphasize divorce and domestic violence, the report says, and focus far more on adult relationships and problems than on children's needs. Question:Daniels attended a school where the majority of the students were _________.
A.boys
B.girls
C.whites
D.blacks
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2.Anyone meeting Matthew Daniels for the first time could easily assume that he is the product of a conventional, even privileged childhood. With his well-spoken manner, his Ivy League education, and his business card reading "President, Massachusetts Family Institute," Mr. Daniels is the picture of youthful American success. But Daniels can tell a story that refutes those assumptions about his childhood. His father abandoned the family when he was 2. His mother took a job as a secretary. But on her way home one evening she was mugged, sustaining injuries that eventually left her unable to work, the family went on welfare. Growing up in New York's Spanish Harliem, Daniels was one of only four white students until ninth grade. Despite a difficult environment, he stayed out of trouble. He even won a full scholarship to Dartmouth College, graduating in 1985. How did he do it? He credits his mother's religious faith. "It's why I didn't end up like the guys in my neighborhood," he says. "Some went to prison." Although his father, a writer, didn't support the family, he maintained contact with his son, emphasizing the importance of books and education. Because of his experience, Daniels has become a passionate advocate of the two-parent family. He sees it as an institution under cultural siege, generally supported by "the person in the street" but too often dismissed by those in academic and media circles. Some of the groups, he says, have miscalculated the social consequences of "trying to convince people that there are all sorts of" alternative family forms. Even during law school, he encountered professors who were "openly hostile to the idea that we need two-parent families to have a healthy society." Reporters and academics may not be the only ones ambivalent about marriage. A new study of college textbooks finds that many texts on marriage paint a pessimistic view. They emphasize divorce and domestic violence, the report says, and focus far more on adult relationships and problems than on children's needs. Question:Daniels benefited most from __________.
A.his mother's religion and his father's idea of education
B.his experience as a child from a poor family
C.his school education
D.neighborhood
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3.Leave me alone; mind your own ____.
A.events
B.affairs
C.things
D.matters
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4.I wonder what your ____ in life is.
A.symbol
B.topic
C.system
D.goal
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5.They discussed the problem three or four times and finally came to ____.
A.end
B.conclusion
C.result
D.judgment
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6.____ halfway through the experiment, there was a power failure and the teacher told us to stop.
A.When we were only
B.Being only
C.When only
D.Having been
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7.I doubt ____.
A.whether he can come
B.if he can come or not
C.while he will be here
D.that he will come
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8.Education is not an end but a(n) ____ to an end.
A.means
B.solution
C.measure
D.idea
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9.He let me use his computer and ____ return I treated him to dinner.
A.for
B.as
C.in
D.of
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10.It is said that he ____ murder.
A.committed
B.conducted
C.executed
D.emitted
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11.I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ____, she would have met my brother.
A.has come
B.did come
C.came
D.had come
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12.I'm very sorry ____ the whole morning. I forgot the appointment.
A.to keep you wait
B.to have kept you waiting
C.to keey you waiting
D.to keep you to wait
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13.Mary never tells anyone what she does for a ____.
A.job
B.work
C.profession
D.living
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14.Only guests of the hotel enjoy the ____ of using the private beach.
A.privilege
B.possibility
C.favor
D.advantage
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15.____ for your help, we'd never have been able to get over the difficulties.
A.Had it not
B.If it were not
C.Had it not been
D.If we had not been
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16.In an Indianapolis neighborhood where some teenage girls flaunt pregnancies like new hairdos, Aisha Fields is unabashedly square: She plans to abstain from sex until she marries. "Most of my friends already have babies," says Aisha, a high school junior and abstinence mentor. "Being pregnant is a fashion. Girls go around bragging:‘I'm three months (pregnant).' They think it's cool." With 1 million US teens becoming pregnant every year, and 13 percent of all American babies born to teens, Aisha's "just-say-no" attitude is a policymaker's dream come true. Federal and state officials are banking on such an attitude as they launch a new campaign to shrink the ranks of unwed teenage moms. On Oct. 1, the government will begin dispensing some of the nearly $850 million earmarked under the welfare—reform law over five years for teaching abstinence and preventing out-of-wedlock births. But experts say there is no research to suggest that abstinence—only education will succeed. In contrast, more comprehensive programs that cover contraception, family planning, and communication skills can help delay sexual involvement by teens, according to a study by the National Campaign to Prevent Pregnancy in Washington. "It seems foolish to be tossing away all this money without knowing whether it will work," says Lisa Kaeser, a senior associate at the Alan Guttmacher Institute, a Washington-based nonprofit group that researches reproductive health. But experts agree the latest campaign against teen pregnancy marks a big improvement over older policies in one fundamental respect: It emphasizes prevention. Question:Lisa Kaiser's attitude towards the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy is __________.
A.affirmative
B.negative
C.doubtful
D.prudent
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17.It is a good idea for parents to monitor the ____ as well as the kind of television that their children watch.
A.number
B.size
C.amount
D.screen
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18.Forty to sixty percent of genetically modified organisms are finding their way to the produce departments. That process involves taking a gene from one plant or animal and putting it in another. "So now, we make these changes in the laboratory and put these changes back into corn by the new technology," Dr. Curtis Hannah said.Not all consumers are pleased that researchers are tinkering with food that finds its way to American dinner tables. Opponents say that some produce is laced with pesticide to make them drug resistant. Labeling advocate Jodette Green said that foods that have been genetically engineered need to be labeled.A Massachusetts watchdog group said that a local supermarket chain is selling a pancake mix containing genetically engineered ingredients that aren't listed on the label.News Center 5's Rhondella Richardson reports that MassPIRG launched its Safe Food Campaign on Thursday, calling for accurate labeling and better testing of genetically modified food.MassPIRG said that packages of Shaw's Pancake Mix contain GM food, but they aren't labeled as such. "There's no info about the potentially dangerous DNA contained in this pancake mix," Jill Rubin of MassPIRG said at an afternoon press conferenceCereal and many soy and corn products are genetically modified, but they often don't say so on the label. There are not rules or regulations requiring such information on nutrition labels.MassPIRG believes that childhood ear and sinus infections could soon be incurable and that the consumption of genetically engineered food creates more food allergies.Shaw's pancake mix has not caused any known health problems, but many feel that better labeling shouldn't be too hard for a store to swallow. "I want to know what's in everything I buy," shopper Alexander Grieco said. "I have high blood pressure and high cholesterol."MassPIRG targeted Shaw's Supermarkets in its campaign because the Shaw's parent company in London has voluntarily removed all genetically engineered ingredients from its store brand products.A local Shaw's spokesperson said that in England, there was a lack of direction from the government on what to do when consumers questioned product safety. The Food and Drug Administration has found nothing unsafe so far, and Shaw's awaits direction from the FDA before any product is recalled. Question:According to the article, MassPIRG is an organization ___________.
A.in favor of genetically engineered foods
B.not optimistic about genetically engineered foods
C.politically-oriented
D.responsible for testing genetically engineered food
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19.Also serving to produce a distinctive usage was the practice of distinguishing a son from a father by the use of Junior. This typically American practice began in the middle of the eighteenth century when most gentlemen had some knowledge of Latin and were familiar with the use of the term Junior, translated often into English as "the younger," as applied to such Latin worthies as Cato and Pliny. The practice was so well established by 1776 that three signers of the Declaration added the Jr. Agai. British custom has been different; the second of a pair of great statesmen is known as William Pitt, the younger. Still another important movement beginning around 1750 was the rise of the name Charles. Earlier, Charles is hardly found at all in New England, and is rare in the other colonies. After that its growth was not only steady but even spectacular. By 1850 it had become one of the commonest names, and it has remained close to the top since that time. Its curious nickname, Chuck, is typically American. Almost at an equal pace with the rise of Charles, the use of Biblical names, even in New England, began to fall off. Ebenezer, and even Samuel and Benjamin, came to have about them an old-fashioned aura. The facts are clear enough; the causes remain obscure. Immigration probably had little to do with such changes. English influence, at the ideal level, may have helped the growth of Charles. During these same decades the name was increasing in popularity there, where Sir Charles Grandison was a much read novel and Bonie Prince Charlie had given the name a renewed vogue among those who still held sentimentally to the Stuarts. But most of the other new developments seem to be wholly native and even to run counter to British practice. Question:The final paragraph mainly discusses ________.
A.how novels helped the popularity of certain names
B.new developments in naming habits of Americans
C.immigration and naming habits of Americans
D.Charles, the most popular name in America
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20.Whether work should be placed among the causes of happiness or among the causes of unhappiness may perhaps be regarded as a doubtful question. There is certainly much work which is exceedingly irksome, and an excess of work is always very painful. I think, however, that, provided work is not excessive in amount, even the dullest work is to most people less painful than idleness. There are in work all grades, from mere relief of tedium up to the profoundest delights, according to the nature of the work and the abilities of the worker. Most of the work that most people have to do is not in itself interesting, but even such work has certain great advantages. To begin with, it fills a good many hours of the day without the need of deciding what one shall do. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice, are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing, and whatever they decide on, they are troubled by the feeling that something else would have been pleasanter. To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization, and at present very few people have reached this level. Moreover, the exercise of choice is in itself tiresome. Except to people with unusual initiative it is positively agreeable to be told what to do at each hour of the day, provided the orders are not too unpleasant. Most of the idle rich suffer unspeakable boredom as the price of their freedom from drudgery. At times, they may find relief by hunting big game in Africa, or by flying round the world, but the number of such sensations is limited, especially after youth is past. Accordingly the more intelligent rich men work nearly as hard as if they were poor, while rich women for the most part keep themselves busy with innumerable trifles of whose earth-shaking importance they are firmly persuaded. Question:Work not interesting ________.
A.can also give profound delight
B.can produce only tedium
C.also needs creative spirit
D.may also be beneficial
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21.The idea sounds very good but will it work in ____.
A.practice
B.place
C.advance
D.company
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22.There used to be a church behind the cemetery,____?
A.didn’t there
B.used there
C.usedn’t it
D.didn’t it
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23.Young people should have the right to control and direct their own learning, that is, to decide what they want to learn, and when, where, how, how much, how fast, and with what help they want to learn it. To be still more specific, I want them to have the right to decide if, when, how much, and by whom they want to be taught and the right to decide whether they want to learn in a school and if so which one and for how much of the time. No human right, except the right to life itself, is more fundamental than this. A person's freedom of learning is part of his freedom of thought, even more basic than his freedom of speech. If we take from someone his right to decide what he will be curious about, we destroy his freedom of thought. We say, in effect, you must think not about what interests and concerns you, but about what interests and concerns us. This right of each of us to control our own learning is now in danger. When we put into our laws the highly authoritarian notion that someone should and could decide what all young people were to learn and beyond that, could do whatever might seem necessary (which now includes dosing them with drugs) to compel them to learn it, we took a long step down a very steep and dangerous path. The requirement that a child go to school, for about six hours a day, 180 days a year, for about ten years, whether or not he learns anything there, whether or not he already knows it or could learn it faster or better somewhere else, is such a gross violation of civil liberties that few adults would stand for it. But the child who resists is treated as a criminal. With this requirement we created an industry, an army of people whose whole work was to tell young people what they had to learn and to try to make them learn it. Some of these people, wanting to exercise even more power over others, or to be even more "helpful," are now beginning to say, "If compulsory education is good for children, why wouldn't it be good for everyone? If it is a good thing, how can there be too much of it?" They are beginning to talk, as one man did on a nationwide TV show, about "womb-to-tomb" schooling. If hours of homework every night are good for the young, why wouldn't they be good for us all—they would keep us away from the TV set and other frivolous pursuits. Some group of experts, somewhere, would be glad to decide what we all ought to know and then very so often check up on us to make sure we knew it—with, of course, appropriate penalties if we did not. Question:The passage implies that _______.
A.the right of controlling one's own learning is not a human right
B.some people are doing the kind of learning which they do not want
C.interest plays an important role in learning
D.learning is becoming more and more dangerous
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24.It is time the government ____ the law into effect.
A.is putting
B.put
C.puts
D.will put
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25.Whether work should be placed among the causes of happiness or among the causes of unhappiness may perhaps be regarded as a doubtful question. There is certainly much work which is exceedingly irksome, and an excess of work is always very painful. I think, however, that, provided work is not excessive in amount, even the dullest work is to most people less painful than idleness. There are in work all grades, from mere relief of tedium up to the profoundest delights, according to the nature of the work and the abilities of the worker. Most of the work that most people have to do is not in itself interesting, but even such work has certain great advantages. To begin with, it fills a good many hours of the day without the need of deciding what one shall do. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice, are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing, and whatever they decide on, they are troubled by the feeling that something else would have been pleasanter. To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization, and at present very few people have reached this level. Moreover, the exercise of choice is in itself tiresome. Except to people with unusual initiative it is positively agreeable to be told what to do at each hour of the day, provided the orders are not too unpleasant. Most of the idle rich suffer unspeakable boredom as the price of their freedom from drudgery. At times, they may find relief by hunting big game in Africa, or by flying round the world, but the number of such sensations is limited, especially after youth is past. Accordingly the more intelligent rich men work nearly as hard as if they were poor, while rich women for the most part keep themselves busy with innumerable trifles of whose earth-shaking importance they are firmly persuaded. Question:The above passage discusses ________ .
A.the rich and the poor
B.work as sources of happiness
C.the importance of work
D.the use of less interesting work
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