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20秋《阅读(II)》作业4

阅读:9 更新时间:2020-11-04 10:42:53

20秋《阅读(II)》作业4


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1.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: According to the behaviorist model of child-rearing,parents ( )
A.shouldn't give overdoses of affection
B.should know that children are sensitive
C.can train their children to be any type of people they like
D.should be gentle to their children
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2.She knew she sounded old and (crabby).
A.angry
B.coarse
C.dull
D.irritable
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3.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Two Models of Parenting
B.Two child images
C.The role of Pygmalions
D.J.B.Watson and his modern behaviorism
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4.And there were (suites) available,if she could stand living in an apartment without a yard or garden.
A.sets of rooms
B.sets of huts
C.places suitable
D.places needed
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5.Curiosity (gripped) me.
A.surprised
B.disappointed
C.got rid of
D.took hold of
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6.But,watching through the window as Tim hurried through the (downpour) from pig barn to cattle shed,she knew the answer.
A.stream of water
B.heavy fall of rain
C.narrow path
D.big expanse
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7.Yet when their daytime alertness was tested later on, more than 80% were not (optimally) alert.
A.best possibly
B.actually
C.enough
D.really
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8.While I was working as a child psychologist,a principal phoned me."I'm baffled,"he said."A child has written an essay called ‘The Properties of the Nucleus.’"His teacher can't understand it.Neither can I."I went to the school and met Mark,an eight-year-old with ginger hair and freckles.He looked like a very ordinary boy to me.I proceeded with the intelligence test."What is Mars?"I asked.Most children his age say,"A chocolate bar."He described the planet in detail.He quickly completed the tests,including a math test for much older children.Then he looked at me as if to say:"Can't you come up with something more difficult?"I had seen gifted children before,but this boy was "off the map"as far as assessing his IQ was concerned.Mark's principle and arranged for Mark to be tutored by a science teacher.But in many ways he was just a normal child.We wanted him to be socially adjusted as well as intellectually outstanding.So we also encouraged him to join the Club Scouts and we kept him in class with kids of his age for the time being.I asked Mark's parents what they thought of him."He can be a pain in the neck,"his mother said."He asks such impossible questions,"she smiled."But we love him dearly."This was crucial.Like the rest of us,gifted children need to be loved.He gained a first-class honors degree from Cambridge,is now chairman of his own computer company and is happily married with two children. 问题:Which of the following is not ture? ( )
A.the author and the principal seperated the boy from the other children to be tutored by a science teacher
B.the author and the principal encouraged the boy to join the Club Scouts
C.the gifted children needed love like the rest of us
D.the boy might not be stupid
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9."I have instructions from the Kommandantur to (settle an officer)in this house."
A.receive an officer as a guest
B.solve some disputes with an officer
C.give an order to an officer
D.let an officer live…as a lodger
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10.Most Americans think that ice cream is as American as baseball and applepie.But ice cream was known long before American was discovered.The Roman emperor Nero may have made a king of ice cream.He hired hundreds of men to bring snow and ice from the mountains.He used it to make cold drinks.Traveler Marco Polo brought back recipes for chilled and frozen milk from China.Hundreds of years later,ice cream reached England.It is said that King Charles I enjoyed that treat very much.There is a story that he bribed his cook to keep the recipe for ice cream a royal secret.Today ice cream is known throughout the world.Americans alone eat more than two billion quarts a year. 问题:The selection says that most Americans ( )
A.think that ice cream is very new
B.think that ice cream was an American idea
C.know that ice cream is very old
D.do not know what ice cream is
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11.The 12th lunar month in Chinese is called layue(the month to worship all the deities).The 8th day of the 12the lunar month is the Laba Festival.It is treated as the beginning of the Chinese holiday season.After the Laba Festival,people enter into the busy preparation for the Lunar New Year.The main activity of the Laba Festival is cooking and sharing the special laba gruel(laba-zhou).Most people believe it has a close relation to Sakyamuni,the Buddha.He left his comfortable home and set off in search of the final enlightenment.After days of travelling without rest,he collapsed near a river in northern India.He was revived by a wandering shepherdess,who offered him her lunch of family leftovers consisting of sticky cereal,glutinous rice,dates,chestnuts and wild fruit.After consuming this repast,Sakyamuni took a batch and sat under a tree for meditation,where he finally attained enlightenment.The very day was the 8th day of the last lunar month.The meal was the original laba gruel. 问题:The Laba Festival is believed by many to be related to ( )
A.Confucianism
B.Buddhism
C.Taoism
D.Christianity
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12.I held onto the rail with a feeble grip and began to descend the (treacherous) steps.
A.insecure
B.tricky
C.complicated
D.wicked
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13.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Two Models of Parenting
B.Two child images
C.The role of Pygmalions
D.J.B.Watson and his modern behaviorism
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14.Laboratory experiments have confirmed that the sleep-deprived mind is (prone to)"microsleeps".
A.likely to suffer
B.easy to do
C.sensitive to
D.dumb to
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15.You don't have to set up a foundation or spend hours raising money to help the environment.Joey Gordon-Levitt,16,does his part by simply collecting his newspapers,plastic,and cans-and have them recycled."Everyone should recycle,"the teen star says.Singer and actor Better Midler goes a step further-She picks up other people's garbage.For example,Midler has helped remove truckloads of trash from Fort Tryon Park in New York City.Such simple efforts at trash collection and reduction are catching on.Last year,the Environmental Protection Agency counted 7,500 recycling programs in the US. That's up from just 1,000 programs in 1988.Almost half of the country's population now lives in towns and cities with curbside recycling.So we're on the right track to reducing trash.But we still have a long way to go.In 1994, about 40% of paper products and plastic soda bottles produced in this country were recycled. But only 2% of food packaging was recovered!We also have to work on creating more demand for recycled material.You can help by checking labels-and buying products made from recovered paper, plastic,and metal.Recycling saves resources like water and trees,and cuts down on air pollution.So what are you waiting for?Get to work taking care of our "rock.""If we don't,we'll all have to move to Mars,"says Gordon-Levitt."The only problem is that we don't know how to do that yet!" 问题: What is unusual about Better Midler?
A.She helps the environment
B.She picks up other peoples trash
C.she collects newspapers, plastic and cans like Gordon-Levitt
D.she urges other people to take their garbage out of the city
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16.The 12th lunar month in Chinese is called layue(the month to worship all the deities).The 8th day of the 12the lunar month is the Laba Festival.It is treated as the beginning of the Chinese holiday season.After the Laba Festival,people enter into the busy preparation for the Lunar New Year.The main activity of the Laba Festival is cooking and sharing the special laba gruel(laba-zhou).Most people believe it has a close relation to Sakyamuni,the Buddha.He left his comfortable home and set off in search of the final enlightenment.After days of travelling without rest,he collapsed near a river in northern India.He was revived by a wandering shepherdess,who offered him her lunch of family leftovers consisting of sticky cereal,glutinous rice,dates,chestnuts and wild fruit.After consuming this repast,Sakyamuni took a batch and sat under a tree for meditation,where he finally attained enlightenment.The very day was the 8th day of the last lunar month.The meal was the original laba gruel. 问题:At the Laba Fesival,people ( )
A.worship all the deities
B.begin preparations for the Lunar New Year
C.cook a variety of food to mark the occasion
D.eat a special gruel together
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17.The history of the Winter Games,however,has been even more troubled than that of the Summer Games.Until 1924 all the winter sports competitions,held every 4 years from 1901 to 1917 and again in 1992,had been in the Scandinavian countries-Sweden,Norway and Finland.The sportsmen of these countries believed that the Winter Games could only be held in the Scandinavian way.Coubertin,himself,was against a separate Winter Olympics as he felt that they would cause trouble within the Olympic movement.However,as winter holidays in the Alps became more and more popular,so did the idea of a truly international Winter Games.The first Winter Olympics were held in Chamonix in 1924,though they were only recognized by the International Olympic Committee as "Olympic" two years later in 1926.Although there were many arguments before them,the 1st Games were a success,but the problems did not end there.In 1935,it was decided by the IOC that ski teachers could not compete in the Olympics because they were professionals.This caused a big argument between the IOC and the International Ski Federation,who agreed with the ski teachers and,as the two organizations could come to an end very soon after their beginning.However,war came and with it an end to the discussions.When the war was finally over,the Winter Games were started up again,as before,in St Moritz in 1948 and the crisis had passed. 问题: the above passage mainly discusses ( )
A.the birth of the winter Olympics
B.the problems of the Winter Olympics
C.the history of the Winter Olympics
D.the necessity for a separate Winter Olympics
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18.Then she (snuffed out) the candle.
A.put out
B.moved away
C.turned off
D.used out
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19.While I was working as a child psychologist,a principal phoned me."I'm baffled,"he said."A child has written an essay called ‘The Properties of the Nucleus.’"His teacher can't understand it.Neither can I."I went to the school and met Mark,an eight-year-old with ginger hair and freckles.He looked like a very ordinary boy to me.I proceeded with the intelligence test."What is Mars?"I asked.Most children his age say,"A chocolate bar."He described the planet in detail.He quickly completed the tests,including a math test for much older children.Then he looked at me as if to say:"Can't you come up with something more difficult?"I had seen gifted children before,but this boy was "off the map"as far as assessing his IQ was concerned.Mark's principle and arranged for Mark to be tutored by a science teacher.But in many ways he was just a normal child.We wanted him to be socially adjusted as well as intellectually outstanding.So we also encouraged him to join the Club Scouts and we kept him in class with kids of his age for the time being.I asked Mark's parents what they thought of him."He can be a pain in the neck,"his mother said."He asks such impossible questions,"she smiled."But we love him dearly."This was crucial.Like the rest of us,gifted children need to be loved.He gained a first-class honors degree from Cambridge,is now chairman of his own computer company and is happily married with two children. 问题:The principal was puzzled because ( )
A.he could not understand the strange ideas of a gifted boy
B.he didn't believe an eight-year-old boy could write a scientific essay on the nucleus
C.he was shocked to see an eight-year-old boy interested in the nucleus
D.he could not understand the essay
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20.Last December 22 a pickup truck slid on an icy bridge over the Elizabeth River near Portsmouth,and slammed into the guardrail,where workers were removing scaffolding from a paving project.The impact threw Cornell Taylor,43,more than 70 feet into the frigid water below.Nearby,Joseph G.Brisson,36,was in the wheelhouse of his tugboat.He and his crew were talking about the upcoming holidays when suddenly their chatter was interrupted by an urgent voice:"Man down!"Brisson saw Taylor hit the water."He went down a few times and all I saw was a hand."Realizing there was no time to wait for rescue crews,Brisson took off his shoes and handed his wallet to a co-worker,then jumped feet-first into the 40-degree water.Swimming to Taylor,Brisson helped the disoriented man get his face above water."I told him I was not going to let him go,that if he went,I was going with him."The river current was freezing."I couldn't feel my legs,arms or hands,"Brisson said.He locked his legs around Taylor's waist and kept the injured man float and talking."I told him we were going to be all right,that we were both going to enjoy Christmas."Finally, after about 30 minutes in the water,the men were pulled to safety.Calling himself "a normal Joe,"Brisson says,"I have a family.I thought about that.But I thought about how life is very important,I couldn't let anything happen to him." 问题:After Brisson saw Taylor fall into the river,he ( )
A.waited for rescue crews first
B.couldn't be sure where the latter was
C.jumped into the cold water to save him
D.asked a co-worker to jump first
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