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20秋《阅读(IV)》作业2

阅读:9 更新时间:2020-11-06 09:36:35

20秋《阅读(IV)》作业2


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1.Young people should have the right to control and direct their own learning, that is, to decide what they want to learn, and when, where, how, how much, how fast, and with what help they want to learn it. To be still more specific, I want them to have the right to decide if, when, how much, and by whom they want to be taught and the right to decide whether they want to learn in a school and if so which one and for how much of the time. No human right, except the right to life itself, is more fundamental than this. A person's freedom of learning is part of his freedom of thought, even more basic than his freedom of speech. If we take from someone his right to decide what he will be curious about, we destroy his freedom of thought. We say, in effect, you must think not about what interests and concerns you, but about what interests and concerns us. This right of each of us to control our own learning is now in danger. When we put into our laws the highly authoritarian notion that someone should and could decide what all young people were to learn and beyond that, could do whatever might seem necessary (which now includes dosing them with drugs) to compel them to learn it, we took a long step down a very steep and dangerous path. The requirement that a child go to school, for about six hours a day, 180 days a year, for about ten years, whether or not he learns anything there, whether or not he already knows it or could learn it faster or better somewhere else, is such a gross violation of civil liberties that few adults would stand for it. But the child who resists is treated as a criminal. With this requirement we created an industry, an army of people whose whole work was to tell young people what they had to learn and to try to make them learn it. Some of these people, wanting to exercise even more power over others, or to be even more "helpful," are now beginning to say, "If compulsory education is good for children, why wouldn't it be good for everyone? If it is a good thing, how can there be too much of it?" They are beginning to talk, as one man did on a nationwide TV show, about "womb-to-tomb" schooling. If hours of homework every night are good for the young, why wouldn't they be good for us all—they would keep us away from the TV set and other frivolous pursuits. Some group of experts, somewhere, would be glad to decide what we all ought to know and then very so often check up on us to make sure we knew it—with, of course, appropriate penalties if we did not. Question:According to the passage, it is most fundamental that young people should have the freedom of _______ .
A.speech
B.thought
C.learning
D.curiosity
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2.I ____ asleep in the corner, for I remember nothing of what happened during the night.
A.might fall
B.must fall
C.must have fallen
D.can have fallen
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3.No one can avoid ____ by advertisements.
A.influenced
B.influencing
C.to influence
D.being influenced
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4.Next month they ____ in the country for eight years.
A.will have been
B.will be
C.are
D.have been
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5.It is said that he ____ murder.
A.committed
B.conducted
C.executed
D.emitted
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6.I get jumpy inside when I get jealous and I find it hard to control that. At first I try to avoid it, try to pretend it's not there. Mostly that works for me; my jealous feelings are fleeting things anyway. They never last very long. I know that jealousy is real and I don't want to deny it in me, but I don't like the physical feeling it gives me. I sometimes like the feelings behind the jealousy and being made to feel jealous. It says to me that I care enough, like someone enough to be moved in that way. It means that I am still in touch with someone in a relationship and that the relationship is important to me, whether it's a male friend or a woman. When I am jealous it's as if someone was intruding on some private territory. But once I understand what's happening I can talk about it with the people involved and understand it's not threatening to my relationship, it seems okay. It seems like me giving permission to come into something that is personal and private. It can start out to be very private, but that can be negotiated. Sometimes I wish I could talk about it more with the person that causes me to be jealous, but sometimes I don't think that's a way I should be and I don't talk about it. Anyhow, jealousy is real and I don't want to hide it. Sometimes I don't want to talk about it because the person I'm dealing with is not important enough for me to spend the time and energy it would take to straighten things out. If it's someone I care about and am going to be spending more time with, I think I can and would talk about what's bothering me. When I get down to it, I think my jealousy has to do with low self-esteem, low self-concept or feeling inadequate. Mostly it's built around insecurity. But I don't know if I'll ever become that secure as to not experience some jealousy. I don't want anyone to be that meaningless to me. It seems kind of dangerous to me to be that sure. Question:In the author's view, __________.
A.it's effective to talk with the person who makes him jealous
B.it's not sensible to hide jealousy
C.jealousy is real and preventable
D.it's meaningless to feel jealous
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7.From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided; when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction. This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are too many possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favor of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start. The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic learning, to distinguish it from individual learning that an animal does in the cause of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behavior is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways. Question:Concerning the relationship between genetic learning and individual experience, which of the following is right?
A.They are irrelevant to each other.
B.They are contradictory, but individual experience is the dominant.
C.Genetic learning is likely to function more if individual experience doesn't vary much.
D.Genetic learning is more efficient than individual experience.
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8.From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided; when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction. This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are too many possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favor of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start. The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic learning, to distinguish it from individual learning that an animal does in the cause of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behavior is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways. Question:The survival game is considered complicated and potentially very dangerous because ________.
A.decisions made by animals may prove fatal
B.animals are often in danger of being attacked
C.animals make decisions entirely by trial
D.environment is not fit for animals to survive
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9.The definition leaves ____ for disagreement.
A.a small room
B.much room
C.great deal room
D.not so big a room
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10.Forty to sixty percent of genetically modified organisms are finding their way to the produce departments. That process involves taking a gene from one plant or animal and putting it in another. "So now, we make these changes in the laboratory and put these changes back into corn by the new technology," Dr. Curtis Hannah said.Not all consumers are pleased that researchers are tinkering with food that finds its way to American dinner tables. Opponents say that some produce is laced with pesticide to make them drug resistant. Labeling advocate Jodette Green said that foods that have been genetically engineered need to be labeled.A Massachusetts watchdog group said that a local supermarket chain is selling a pancake mix containing genetically engineered ingredients that aren't listed on the label.News Center 5's Rhondella Richardson reports that MassPIRG launched its Safe Food Campaign on Thursday, calling for accurate labeling and better testing of genetically modified food.MassPIRG said that packages of Shaw's Pancake Mix contain GM food, but they aren't labeled as such. "There's no info about the potentially dangerous DNA contained in this pancake mix," Jill Rubin of MassPIRG said at an afternoon press conferenceCereal and many soy and corn products are genetically modified, but they often don't say so on the label. There are not rules or regulations requiring such information on nutrition labels.MassPIRG believes that childhood ear and sinus infections could soon be incurable and that the consumption of genetically engineered food creates more food allergies.Shaw's pancake mix has not caused any known health problems, but many feel that better labeling shouldn't be too hard for a store to swallow. "I want to know what's in everything I buy," shopper Alexander Grieco said. "I have high blood pressure and high cholesterol."MassPIRG targeted Shaw's Supermarkets in its campaign because the Shaw's parent company in London has voluntarily removed all genetically engineered ingredients from its store brand products.A local Shaw's spokesperson said that in England, there was a lack of direction from the government on what to do when consumers questioned product safety. The Food and Drug Administration has found nothing unsafe so far, and Shaw's awaits direction from the FDA before any product is recalled. Question:One of the reasons why genetically engineered foods are not welcome is that _________.
A.some of them are drug-resistant
B.a high percentage of them come from the laboratory
C.probably pesticide is put in them
D.they are not nutrient
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11.This is the place ____ the foreign guests are going to visit.
A.where
B.when
C.how
D.which
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12.Yhudi Menuhin, who died in Berlin on March 12, 1999, at the age of 82, was a child prodigy who fulfilled his promise to become one of the world's foremost violinists before extending his range to teaching and conducting. The gently spoken U.S.-born virtuoso became as renowned for his devotion to humane causes as for his mastery of the violin. The spotlight has been on him since his debut at seven in 1924. By the time he was 13, he had performed in Paris, London and New York. In Berlin, his performance prompted physicist Albert Einstein to exclaim, "Now I know there is a God in Heaven." Reportedly the world's highest paid musician in the 1930s, his striving for perfection made him a legend. Menuhin said the violin made its own demands, "Almost like a pagan goddess, exacting a certain tribute." When he was 38, one New York newspaper wrote, "The freshness and unique purity of his playing is exhilarating. No other violinist has such speaking eloquence in the tone alone." He gave up public violin performances in his 70s. His hearing was a little impaired by then and he had taken on many more interests. But his conducting was still full of energy and his travel schedule grueling. "I feel that what I've learned in music I can apply to a wide repertoire, which is fun because I am exploring new terrain," he said in an interview at the time of his 80th birthday. "But I feel no desire now to spend hours working away again at something which I myself in the past and other people can play far better than I can now. I don't see the point." A British citizen since 1985 and a life peer since 1993—Baron Menuhin of Stoke d'Abernon in the County of Surrey—he had a school in England and an academy in Switzerland for young musicians, whom he often conducts. He has also helped found various musical festivals, held the Nehru Peace Prize and was a goodwill ambassador for UNESCO. While pursuing interests such as the environment, organic farming, alternative medicine, education and the plight of gypsies, he sticks to a long-standing healthy diet and yoga. "I don't squander my energies. Keep myself in fairly good trim. I stand on my head every morning. Conducting is a wonderful exercise because it uses every faculty," he says. Question:The public was first attracted to Menuhin when he _________.
A.gave his first musical performance
B.was 13 years old
C.was praised by Einstein
D.became the highest paid musician
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13.I hope there is ____ for the doctor in your car.
A.seat
B.room
C.place
D.corner
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14.You’d better let the children read such books ____ will make them better and cleverer.
A.which
B.that
C./
D.as
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15.I doubt ____.
A.whether he can come
B.if he can come or not
C.while he will be here
D.that he will come
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16.California-born and Stanford-educated, John Steinbeck gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a novelist who combined themes of social protest with a benign view of human nature and a biological interpretation of human experience, a combination that gained him wide popularity and provided the basis for a career not only in fiction but also in journalism, the theater, and films. John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr., was born in 1902, in the Salinas Valley, whose scenery, agricultural workers, and ne'er-do-well paisanos appear frequently in his fiction. His father was treasurer of Monterey County, and his mother was a former schoolteacher. Their library introduced him early to such standard authors as Milton, Dostoevsky, Flaubert, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. He was a contributor to the school newspaper, a varsity athlete, and president of his graduating class in high school, and he attended Stanford University sporadically between 1920 and 1925, majoring in English, but never finished the degree. He worked on ranches and on a road gang before trying futilely to establish himself as a writer during a brief stay in New York City in 1926, and he worked in a California fish hatchery and camped in the Sierras before publishing his first novel, Cup of Gold, in 1929. In those years he read D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, and particularly the novelists James Branch Cabelland, Hemingway with enthusiasm, but his perennial interests were the classics of Continental literature and the ancient historians. In 1930 he married and moved to Pacific Grove, California, where his father provided a house and small allowance to support him. Two unsuccessful novels treating the enchantment of the American Dream and the cost of pursuing it (The Pastures of Heaven, 1932, and To a God Unknown, 1933) preceded his first successes, Tortilla Flat in 1935 and In Dubious Battle in 1936. The first was an episodic, warmly humorous treatment of a band of paisanos (a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Caucasian strands). Their picturesque and shiftless ways, naive affection for their church, mystical appreciation of nature, and loyalty to their band are given the air of legend and likened to the tales of King Arthur's Round Table. The second deals with a strike among fruit pickers, its defeat by the landowners with their vigilantes, and the efforts of communist organizers first to organize the strike and then to exploit the workers. Question:"Paisanos" means ________.
A.rich people
B.poor people
C.peasants
D.laborers
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17.____ he says or does won't make me change my mind at all.
A.Whatever
B.However
C.Which
D.How
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18.____ I want badly is a new sports car.
A.All that
B.All what
C.All which
D.The thing what
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19.Forty to sixty percent of genetically modified organisms are finding their way to the produce departments. That process involves taking a gene from one plant or animal and putting it in another. "So now, we make these changes in the laboratory and put these changes back into corn by the new technology," Dr. Curtis Hannah said.Not all consumers are pleased that researchers are tinkering with food that finds its way to American dinner tables. Opponents say that some produce is laced with pesticide to make them drug resistant. Labeling advocate Jodette Green said that foods that have been genetically engineered need to be labeled.A Massachusetts watchdog group said that a local supermarket chain is selling a pancake mix containing genetically engineered ingredients that aren't listed on the label.News Center 5's Rhondella Richardson reports that MassPIRG launched its Safe Food Campaign on Thursday, calling for accurate labeling and better testing of genetically modified food.MassPIRG said that packages of Shaw's Pancake Mix contain GM food, but they aren't labeled as such. "There's no info about the potentially dangerous DNA contained in this pancake mix," Jill Rubin of MassPIRG said at an afternoon press conferenceCereal and many soy and corn products are genetically modified, but they often don't say so on the label. There are not rules or regulations requiring such information on nutrition labels.MassPIRG believes that childhood ear and sinus infections could soon be incurable and that the consumption of genetically engineered food creates more food allergies.Shaw's pancake mix has not caused any known health problems, but many feel that better labeling shouldn't be too hard for a store to swallow. "I want to know what's in everything I buy," shopper Alexander Grieco said. "I have high blood pressure and high cholesterol."MassPIRG targeted Shaw's Supermarkets in its campaign because the Shaw's parent company in London has voluntarily removed all genetically engineered ingredients from its store brand products.A local Shaw's spokesperson said that in England, there was a lack of direction from the government on what to do when consumers questioned product safety. The Food and Drug Administration has found nothing unsafe so far, and Shaw's awaits direction from the FDA before any product is recalled. Question:Shaw's Supermarkets _________.
A.are based in England
B.are based in Massachusetts
C.take the same measure both in Massachusetts and in London
D.take all the genetically engineered foods off their shelves
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20.I'm very sorry ____ the whole morning. I forgot the appointment.
A.to keep you wait
B.to have kept you waiting
C.to keey you waiting
D.to keep you to wait
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21.From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided; when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction. This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are too many possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favor of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start. The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic learning, to distinguish it from individual learning that an animal does in the cause of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behavior is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways. Question:What CANNOT be inferred from the article?
A.The majority of animals depend thoroughly upon genetic learning.
B.Animal behave in particular ways as a result of both individual experience and genetic learning.
C.If an animal depended wholly upon individual experience, its chance of survival would be li
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22.The streets were deserted ____ the policeman on duty.
A.except
B.except for
C.but
D.besides
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23.I get jumpy inside when I get jealous and I find it hard to control that. At first I try to avoid it, try to pretend it's not there. Mostly that works for me; my jealous feelings are fleeting things anyway. They never last very long. I know that jealousy is real and I don't want to deny it in me, but I don't like the physical feeling it gives me. I sometimes like the feelings behind the jealousy and being made to feel jealous. It says to me that I care enough, like someone enough to be moved in that way. It means that I am still in touch with someone in a relationship and that the relationship is important to me, whether it's a male friend or a woman. When I am jealous it's as if someone was intruding on some private territory. But once I understand what's happening I can talk about it with the people involved and understand it's not threatening to my relationship, it seems okay. It seems like me giving permission to come into something that is personal and private. It can start out to be very private, but that can be negotiated. Sometimes I wish I could talk about it more with the person that causes me to be jealous, but sometimes I don't think that's a way I should be and I don't talk about it. Anyhow, jealousy is real and I don't want to hide it. Sometimes I don't want to talk about it because the person I'm dealing with is not important enough for me to spend the time and energy it would take to straighten things out. If it's someone I care about and am going to be spending more time with, I think I can and would talk about what's bothering me. When I get down to it, I think my jealousy has to do with low self-esteem, low self-concept or feeling inadequate. Mostly it's built around insecurity. But I don't know if I'll ever become that secure as to not experience some jealousy. I don't want anyone to be that meaningless to me. It seems kind of dangerous to me to be that sure. Question:When he gets jealous, sometimes he will _________.
A.refuse to talk about it
B.try to hide it from others
C.talk about it with someone who can help him sort things out
D.discuss about it with his friends
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24.You ____ me because I didn't say anything like that.
A.must misunderstand
B.may misunderstand
C.must have misunderstood
D.could have misunderstood
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25.Since you won't take advice, there is no ____ in asking for it.
A.place
B.point
C.reason
D.way
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