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20秋《阅读(II)》作业2

阅读:16 更新时间:2020-11-04 10:42:38

20秋《阅读(II)》作业2


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1.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Two Models of Parenting
B.Two child images
C.The role of Pygmalions
D.J.B.Watson and his modern behaviorism
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2.New measurements taken from sleeping people explain,at least in part,why dreams tend to have such bizarre but vivid storylines.The findings deal a blow to the Freudian interpretation of dreams but leave open the possibility that some useful personal meaning can be extracted from them.The main purpose of dreams,however,the authors of the new study believe,is to test whether the brain has had enough sleep and,if so,to wake it up.The new results show that in sleep,the frontal lobes of the brain are shut down.In the absence of activity in these lobes,which integrate other information and make sense of the outside world,the sleeping brain's images are driven by its emotional centers.The content of these dreams may be vivid and gripping but lacks coherence.The new results are consistent with the theory that memories are consolidated during sleep.From the pattern of activity that was recorded,"it seems that memories already in the system are being read out and filed in terms of their emotional salience,with is an extremely interesting idea,"said Dr.J.Allan Hobson of Harvard Medical School.The new measurements were made by applying the technique known as PET scanning to sleeping subjects.The biologists focused on the two forms of sleep,known as slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.REM sleep,so named because of the rapid eyeball movements that occur then,takes palce about four times during the night and is the phase from which the most vivid dreams are recalled. 问题:The researchers focus on REM sleep because ( )
A.it has rapid eyeball movements
B.it takes place about four times during the night
C.during REM sleep the content of the dreams is coherent
D.it is the phase from which the most vivid dreams are recalled
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3.George Ashmore Fitch was born in Soochow,China in 1883,the son of Presbyterian missionaries George F.and Mary McLllan Fitch.After receiving his B.A.from Wooster College in 1906,Fitch attended Union Theological Seminary in New York.He was made a priest in 1909 and returned to work in Shanghai.When the Nanking Massacre occurred,Fitch was one of the witnesses of the crime.He quickly became active in assisting the Internatinal Committen for the Nanking Safety Zone.Fitch's diary of events of Nanking was carried to Shanghai by the first person able to leave the Nanking after its occupation by the Japanese on December 13,1937.As Fitch has written,"My story created a sensation in Shanghai,for it was the first news of what had happened in the capital since its evacuation,and it was copied and mimeographed and widely distributed there."Fitch's Nanking diary has been published previously but the version of his diary available in the Yale collection differs slightly from the well-publicized version,so excerpts from it have been included in this volume.In 1938 Fitch traveled throughout the United States giving talks about the Nanking Massacre and showing films to document it.He returned to work first in China and then in Korea and China's Taiwan until his retirement in 1961. 问题:When the Nanking Massacre occurred,Fitch ( )
A.was in Shanghai
B.saw the crime with his own eyes
C.became the first person able to leave Nanking
D.was able to let the world know about the event immediately
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4.At the 1908 Olympics in London the Marathon race was held on a very hot day.The race started at Windsor Castle,one of the homes of the Royal Family,so that the Royal children could see the runners leave.The race was planned to continue for 26 miles 385 yards (42,195 metres),now the accepted distance for this race,into Central London.Because of the great heat,however,many runners had to give up before they could finish the race.Towards the end,the large crowd waited with great excitement for the South African,Charles Hefferon,to come into the stadium first.They were surprised,however,when the 1st man to appear was the small Italian,Pietri Dorando.Dorando was by now extremely tired and weak and,as he was running round the stadium towards the finishing line,he fell to the groud,unable to continue.Doctors rushed to help him and he soon got to his feet and continued,with loud cheers from the crowd.As he came close to the line he had to be helped again, this time by a journalist,but finally he finished the race.He was not,of course,allowed to receive the gold because he had had help during the race.Afterwards, Dorando argued unsuccessfully that he had not asked for this help.But the medal was given to an American,Hayes,who had finished second.However, Dorando later received a special gold cup from Queen Alexandra for his courage. 问题:the one who 1st finished the Marathon race turned out to be ( )
A.Hefferon
B.Dorando
C.Hayes
D.Alexandra
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5.You don't have to set up a foundation or spend hours raising money to help the environment.Joey Gordon-Levitt,16,does his part by simply collecting his newspapers,plastic,and cans-and have them recycled."Everyone should recycle,"the teen star says.Singer and actor Better Midler goes a step further-She picks up other people's garbage.For example,Midler has helped remove truckloads of trash from Fort Tryon Park in New York City.Such simple efforts at trash collection and reduction are catching on.Last year,the Environmental Protection Agency counted 7,500 recycling programs in the US. That's up from just 1,000 programs in 1988.Almost half of the country's population now lives in towns and cities with curbside recycling.So we're on the right track to reducing trash.But we still have a long way to go.In 1994, about 40% of paper products and plastic soda bottles produced in this country were recycled. But only 2% of food packaging was recovered!We also have to work on creating more demand for recycled material.You can help by checking labels-and buying products made from recovered paper, plastic,and metal.Recycling saves resources like water and trees,and cuts down on air pollution.So what are you waiting for?Get to work taking care of our "rock.""If we don't,we'll all have to move to Mars,"says Gordon-Levitt."The only problem is that we don't know how to do that yet!" 问题: In 1994, 40% of the paper products and plastic soda bottles produced in America were recycled.But ( ) of food packaging was recovered.
A.none
B.only half
C.20%
D.2%
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6.The inventor of spectacles probably lived in the town of Paris, Italy, around 1286, and was almost certainly a craftsman working in glass. But nobody knows his name. We only know this much about him because Friar Giordane preached a sermon one Wednesday morning in February 1306 at a church in Florence. "It's not yet 20 years since there was found the art of making eye-glasses which make for good vision," said the Friar."One of the best arts and most necessary that the world has. So short a time is it since there was invented a new art that never existed. I have seen the man who first invented and created it, and I have talked to him." We know what Friar Giordane said because admirers copied his sermons down as he gave them. The inventor of spectacles apparently kept the method of making them to himself. Perhaps he thought this was the best way of getting money from his invention. But the idea soon got around. As early as 1300, craftsmen in Venice,the centre of Europe's glass industry, were making the new "disks for the eyes".Spectacles at first were only shaped for far-sighted people. Concave lenses, for short-sighted people, were not developed until the late 15th century. Spectacles allowed people to go on reading and studying long after bad eyesight would normally have forced them to give up.They were like a new pair of eyes. The inventor of such a valuable thing should be honored, everyone thought. But for centuries no one had any idea who the inventor really was. So all kinds of candidates were put forward: Dutch, English, German, Italians from rival cities. A fake memorial was erected last century in a church in Florence to honor a man as the true inventor of spectacles-but he never even existed. 问题:The first record of the spectacles is to be found in ( )
A.newspapers
B.church sermons
C.trade reports
D.praises of Jordan
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7.Two basic models of parental influence emerge from all this competition and variety,however.One, loosely based on Freudian ideas,has presented an image of the vulnerable child:children are sensitive beings,easily damaged not only by traumatic events and emotional stress,but also by overdoses of affection.The 2nd model is that of the behaviorists,whose intellectual ancestors,the empiricist philosophers,described the child's mind as a tabula rasa,or blank slate.The behaviorist model of child-rearing is based on the view that the child is malleable,and parents are therefore cast in the role of Pygmalions who can shape their children however they wish."Give me a dozen healthy infants,well-formed,and my own specified world to bring them up in,"wrote J.B.Watson,the father of modern behaviorism,"and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might-doctor,lawyer,artist,merchant,chief, and yes,even beggar man and thief!"The image of the vulnerable child calls for gentle parents who are sensitive to their child's inner-most thoughts and feelings in order to protect him from trauma.The image of the malleable child requires stem parents who coolly follow the dictates of their own explicit training procedures:only the early eradication of bad habits in eating,sleeping,crying,can fend off permanent maladjustments. 问题: A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Two Models of Parenting
B.Two child images
C.The role of Pygmalions
D.J.B.Watson and his modern behaviorism
答案请点我要此答案,或联系QQ

8.Nature has a perfect system for recycling(循环) water. Water is used again and again. It falls as rain. Then it goes one of the three places. It might seep slowly through the soil as it soaks through into the natural reservoirs underground. It might disappear into the air by evaporating(蒸发) quickly. It might run off into streams(溪) to rivers and to the oceans. 问题:Nature has ( )
A.a balance system
B.a system of recycling water
C.a rule to follow
D.a fate for human
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9.Hemingway was born in 1899 in Oak Park,Illinois,a prosperous suburb of Chicago.His father,a physician,was an enthusiastic hunter and fisheman who taught his son to handle a rod and a gun.Hemingway's respect for these skills and his love of the open air run through his writing.He has tired to capture the point of view,actions,feelings,and speech of men who excel in the activities he admires.In school Hemingway was a good student,with a wide range of interests beyond the classroom.He was known as a boxer,a football player,a member of the swimming team,and manager of the track team.For 3 years he played in the school orchestra.But much of his activity was connected with words,which were to be his lifelong preoccupation.First as reporter,then as editor,he gained experience on the school paper,to which he contributed articles and stories.When Hemingway graduated from high school in 1917,World War I was still being fought.After a few months as a reporter on the Kansas City Star,he sailed for Europe in May,1918,as a volunteer ambulance driver and later transferred to the Italian infantry.Two weeks before his 19th birthday a leg wound brought him close to death.War and death have been recurrent themes in Hemingway's writing.Of war he has said," I thought about Tolstoi and about what a great advantage an experience of war was to a writer.It was one of the major subjects and certainly one of the hardest to write truly of ... " 问题:with a wide range of interests,Hemingway was nevertheless most interested in ( )
A.boxing
B.swimming
C.football
D.words
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10.George Ashmore Fitch was born in Soochow,China in 1883,the son of Presbyterian missionaries George F.and Mary McLllan Fitch.After receiving his B.A.from Wooster College in 1906,Fitch attended Union Theological Seminary in New York.He was made a priest in 1909 and returned to work in Shanghai.When the Nanking Massacre occurred,Fitch was one of the witnesses of the crime.He quickly became active in assisting the Internatinal Committen for the Nanking Safety Zone.Fitch's diary of events of Nanking was carried to Shanghai by the first person able to leave the Nanking after its occupation by the Japanese on December 13,1937.As Fitch has written,"My story created a sensation in Shanghai,for it was the first news of what had happened in the capital since its evacuation,and it was copied and mimeographed and widely distributed there."Fitch's Nanking diary has been published previously but the version of his diary available in the Yale collection differs slightly from the well-publicized version,so excerpts from it have been included in this volume.In 1938 Fitch traveled throughout the United States giving talks about the Nanking Massacre and showing films to document it.He returned to work first in China and then in Korea and China's Taiwan until his retirement in 1961. 问题:Fitch's story created a sensation in Shanghai because ( )
A.it was about how he managed to leave Nanking after Japanese occupation
B.it mainly showed how he actively helped the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone
C.it was the first news of what had happened in Nanking after the Japanese occupation
D.it  was copied and mimeographed and widely distributed t.
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11.I believe this "clock-dependent alerting"can often deceive people into thinking they are (sufficiently)meeting their sleep needs.
A.adequately
B.poorly
C.nearly
D.hardly
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12.Surprisingly,she'd slept,though her mind was (churning) when she went to bed.
A.a total blank
B.agitated
C.confused
D.sharp
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13.Last December 22 a pickup truck slid on an icy bridge over the Elizabeth River near Portsmouth,and slammed into the guardrail,where workers were removing scaffolding from a paving project.The impact threw Cornell Taylor,43,more than 70 feet into the frigid water below.Nearby,Joseph G.Brisson,36,was in the wheelhouse of his tugboat.He and his crew were talking about the upcoming holidays when suddenly their chatter was interrupted by an urgent voice:"Man down!"Brisson saw Taylor hit the water."He went down a few times and all I saw was a hand."Realizing there was no time to wait for rescue crews,Brisson took off his shoes and handed his wallet to a co-worker,then jumped feet-first into the 40-degree water.Swimming to Taylor,Brisson helped the disoriented man get his face above water."I told him I was not going to let him go,that if he went,I was going with him."The river current was freezing."I couldn't feel my legs,arms or hands,"Brisson said.He locked his legs around Taylor's waist and kept the injured man float and talking."I told him we were going to be all right,that we were both going to enjoy Christmas."Finally, after about 30 minutes in the water,the men were pulled to safety.Calling himself "a normal Joe,"Brisson says,"I have a family.I thought about that.But I thought about how life is very important,I couldn't let anything happen to him." 问题:After Brisson saw Taylor fall into the river,he ( )
A.waited for rescue crews first
B.couldn't be sure where the latter was
C.jumped into the cold water to save him
D.asked a co-worker to jump first
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14.No one thought of anything even a little bit like the zipper until Whitecomb L.Judson came along. There were buttons and button-holes, hooks and eyes, laces and buckles. They all took an irritatingly long time to do up, especially when men wore high-laced boots and fashionable ladies squeezed themselves into long corsets. Whitecomb L.Judson's slide-fastener was an out-of-the-blue invention, and no one knows what gave him the idea. No one even knows much about him, except that he was a mechanical engineer living in Chicago and that he patented other inventions, to do with a street railway system and motor-cars. Judson invented the first zipper(called, at the time, a Clasp Locker or Unlocker)in 1891. This ingenious little device looks so simple, and the principle behind it is simple: one row of hooks and eyes slotting neatly into another row by means of a tab. Yet it took 22 years, many improvements and another inventor to make the zipper really practical. 问题:A good title for the above passage is ( )
A.Judson the Inventor
B.How the Zipper Works
C.The Principle of the Zipper
D.The Invention of the Zipper
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15.New measurements taken from sleeping people explain,at least in part,why dreams tend to have such bizarre but vivid storylines.The findings deal a blow to the Freudian interpretation of dreams but leave open the possibility that some useful personal meaning can be extracted from them.The main purpose of dreams,however,the authors of the new study believe,is to test whether the brain has had enough sleep and,if so,to wake it up.The new results show that in sleep,the frontal lobes of the brain are shut down.In the absence of activity in these lobes,which integrate other information and make sense of the outside world,the sleeping brain's images are driven by its emotional centers.The content of these dreams may be vivid and gripping but lacks coherence.The new results are consistent with the theory that memories are consolidated during sleep.From the pattern of activity that was recorded,"it seems that memories already in the system are being read out and filed in terms of their emotional salience,with is an extremely interesting idea,"said Dr.J.Allan Hobson of Harvard Medical School.The new measurements were made by applying the technique known as PET scanning to sleeping subjects.The biologists focused on the two forms of sleep,known as slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.REM sleep,so named because of the rapid eyeball movements that occur then,takes palce about four times during the night and is the phase from which the most vivid dreams are recalled. 问题:The new results of the study ( )
A.show that in sleep the frontal lobes of the brain are active
B.record the pattern of dream activity
C.prove that memories are consolidated during sleep
D.prove that dreams are based on and reflect daily facts
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16.At the 1908 Olympics in London the Marathon race was held on a very hot day.The race started at Windsor Castle,one of the homes of the Royal Family,so that the Royal children could see the runners leave.The race was planned to continue for 26 miles 385 yards (42,195 metres),now the accepted distance for this race,into Central London.Because of the great heat,however,many runners had to give up before they could finish the race.Towards the end,the large crowd waited with great excitement for the South African,Charles Hefferon,to come into the stadium first.They were surprised,however,when the 1st man to appear was the small Italian,Pietri Dorando.Dorando was by now extremely tired and weak and,as he was running round the stadium towards the finishing line,he fell to the groud,unable to continue.Doctors rushed to help him and he soon got to his feet and continued,with loud cheers from the crowd.As he came close to the line he had to be helped again, this time by a journalist,but finally he finished the race.He was not,of course,allowed to receive the gold because he had had help during the race.Afterwards, Dorando argued unsuccessfully that he had not asked for this help.But the medal was given to an American,Hayes,who had finished second.However, Dorando later received a special gold cup from Queen Alexandra for his courage. 问题:Dorando later received a special gold cup because of his ( )
A.top speed
B.fair play
C.great courage
D.successful argument
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17.From this (perspective),sleeping until noon on Saturday is not enough to pay back the ten lost hours as well as meet your nightly requirement of eight.
A.scene
B.example
C.expectation
D.view
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18.Copper(铜)was the first metal that man learned to make.In some mountainous lands there were rocks streaked with green minerals.One day some rocks were accidentally heated by a roaring fire.When the fire burned low,little beads of copper were seen on the rock wall.After that,men heated the rock deliberately to see whether more copper would appear.They soon found a good way to make copper.They would build a trench on a hillside and fill it with charcoal and copper-bearing rock.They covered this furnace with flat stones.They started a wood fire to heat the charcoal and the hot charcoal released copper from the rock.A hot red pool of melted metal formed at the mouth of the trench.When it was cool,the solid metal could be lifted out and cut and pounded into shapes. 问题:Mineral copper is( )
A.black
B.green
C.silver
D.no color
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19.For a few minutes he (tapped) the switch after each flash.
A.touched
B.painted
C.pressed
D.snapped
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20.The inventor of spectacles probably lived in the town of Paris, Italy, around 1286, and was almost certainly a craftsman working in glass. But nobody knows his name. We only know this much about him because Friar Giordane preached a sermon one Wednesday morning in February 1306 at a church in Florence. "It's not yet 20 years since there was found the art of making eye-glasses which make for good vision," said the Friar."One of the best arts and most necessary that the world has. So short a time is it since there was invented a new art that never existed. I have seen the man who first invented and created it, and I have talked to him." We know what Friar Giordane said because admirers copied his sermons down as he gave them. The inventor of spectacles apparently kept the method of making them to himself. Perhaps he thought this was the best way of getting money from his invention. But the idea soon got around. As early as 1300, craftsmen in Venice,the centre of Europe's glass industry, were making the new "disks for the eyes".Spectacles at first were only shaped for far-sighted people. Concave lenses, for short-sighted people, were not developed until the late 15th century. Spectacles allowed people to go on reading and studying long after bad eyesight would normally have forced them to give up.They were like a new pair of eyes. The inventor of such a valuable thing should be honored, everyone thought. But for centuries no one had any idea who the inventor really was. So all kinds of candidates were put forward: Dutch, English, German, Italians from rival cities. A fake memorial was erected last century in a church in Florence to honor a man as the true inventor of spectacles-but he never even existed. 问题:Which of the following is true?
A.The inventor made known his method of making spectacles
B.Florence was the center of Europe's glass industry in the 14th century
C.In the 14th century short-sighted people could read books with the help of spectacles
D.early craftsmen used lenses for far-sighted people
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