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20秋《阅读(IV)》作业1

阅读:7 更新时间:2020-11-06 09:36:29

20秋《阅读(IV)》作业1


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1.English ____ in a new way at my college in the past few years.
A.has been teaching
B.was being taught
C.has been taught
D.had been taught
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2.Young people should have the right to control and direct their own learning, that is, to decide what they want to learn, and when, where, how, how much, how fast, and with what help they want to learn it. To be still more specific, I want them to have the right to decide if, when, how much, and by whom they want to be taught and the right to decide whether they want to learn in a school and if so which one and for how much of the time. No human right, except the right to life itself, is more fundamental than this. A person's freedom of learning is part of his freedom of thought, even more basic than his freedom of speech. If we take from someone his right to decide what he will be curious about, we destroy his freedom of thought. We say, in effect, you must think not about what interests and concerns you, but about what interests and concerns us. This right of each of us to control our own learning is now in danger. When we put into our laws the highly authoritarian notion that someone should and could decide what all young people were to learn and beyond that, could do whatever might seem necessary (which now includes dosing them with drugs) to compel them to learn it, we took a long step down a very steep and dangerous path. The requirement that a child go to school, for about six hours a day, 180 days a year, for about ten years, whether or not he learns anything there, whether or not he already knows it or could learn it faster or better somewhere else, is such a gross violation of civil liberties that few adults would stand for it. But the child who resists is treated as a criminal. With this requirement we created an industry, an army of people whose whole work was to tell young people what they had to learn and to try to make them learn it. Some of these people, wanting to exercise even more power over others, or to be even more "helpful," are now beginning to say, "If compulsory education is good for children, why wouldn't it be good for everyone? If it is a good thing, how can there be too much of it?" They are beginning to talk, as one man did on a nationwide TV show, about "womb-to-tomb" schooling. If hours of homework every night are good for the young, why wouldn't they be good for us all—they would keep us away from the TV set and other frivolous pursuits. Some group of experts, somewhere, would be glad to decide what we all ought to know and then very so often check up on us to make sure we knew it—with, of course, appropriate penalties if we did not. Question:The current compulsory education system for children ________ most adults.
A.works well with
B.is not liked by
C.is accepted by
D.is understood by
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3.There are of course, the happy few who find a savor in their daily job: the Indiana stonemason, who looks upon his work and sees that it is good; the Chicago piano tuner, who seeks and finds the sound that delights; the bookbinder, who saves a piece of history; the Brooklyn fireman, who saves a piece of life ... But don't these satisfactions, like Jude's hunger for knowledge, tell us more about the person than about his task? Perhaps. Nonetheless, there is a common attribute here: a meaning to their work well over and beyond the reward of the paycheck. For the many, there is a hardly concealed discontent. The blue-collar blues is no more bitterly sung than the white-collar moan. "I'm a machine," says the spot-welder. "I'm caged," says the bank teller, and echoes the hotel clerk. "I'm a mule," says the steelworker. "A monkey can do what I do," says the receptionist. "I'm less than a farm implement," says the migrant worker. "I'm an object," says the high-fashion model. Blue collar and white call upon the identical phrase: "I'm a robot." "There is nothing to talk about," the young accountant despairingly enunciates. It was some time ago that John Henry sang, "A man ain't nothin' but a man." The hard, unromantic fact is: he died with his hammer in his hand, while the machine pumped on. Nonetheless, he found immortality. He is remembered. As the automated pace of our daily jobs wipes out name and face—and, in many instances, feeling—there is a sacrilegious question being asked these days. To earn one's bread by the sweat of one's brow has always been the lot of mankind. At least, ever since Eden's slothful couple was served with an eviction notice, the scriptural precept was never doubted, not out loud. No matter how demeaning the task, no matter how it dulls the senses and breaks the spirit, one must work. Or else. Lately there has been a questioning of its "work ethic" especially by the young. Strangely enough, it has touched off profound grievances in others, hitherto devout, silent, and anonymous. Unexpected precincts are being heard from in a show of discontent. Communiques from the assembly line are frequent and alarming; absenteeism. On the evening bus, the tense, pinched faces of young file clerks and elderly secretaries tell us more than we care to know. On the expressways, middle management men pose without grace behind their wheels as they flee city and job. Question:The word "sacrilegious " in paragraph three means ________.
A.religious
B.pious
C.profane
D.free
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4.____ was not the way the event happened.
A.Which the press reported
B.That the press reported
C.What did the press report
D.What the press reported
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5.Move up a little, I haven't any ____ to sit.
A.area
B.room
C.place
D.space
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6.Let's address the question of whether speed reading is even a desirable goal. I am an avid fiction reader. Consciously or unconsciously, readers of fiction appreciate the beauty in good writing. Occasionally I will read a passage or sentence over to be impressed by the opening sentences of Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, The Dark, and Herman. If I was a determined speed reader, I would never have the time to appreciate these beautiful passages. And I'd never have the time to savor the development of a character like Rhett Butler, the Great Gatsby or Captain Ahab. Good writers must be read carefully and thoughtfully to be fully appreciated. To carry the question of the need for rapid reading a bit further, let's consider the technical or educational material most of us must read for our jobs. If you work in a technical field—and most business and professional people do—you'd better read slowly and carefully. Almost all businesses today are subject to federal regulations to some degree. If you must read the Federal Register, the Code of Federal Regulations, the OSHA Handbook or other technical materials related directly to your job, I'd urge you to take your time. A misreading could be costly or damaging to your firm. On the other hand, newspapers, news magazines and other publications should be read with some degree of speed. Here's where a general knowledge of speed reading techniques might be useful. Especially since that is the most common type of reading we do. Anyone can improve their reading efficiently. To do so, you must learn some basic techniques and then consciously apply them. Perhaps an expensive course would help you, but an inexpensive paperback and concentrated practice might provide as much long-term benefit. In any case, you lose nothing by trying the self-help approach. Question:Technical materials should be read carefully because _________.
A.they are usually difficult to understand
B.they are related to federal regulations
C.they are an uncommon type of reading
D.a misreading may do harm to your work
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7.From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided; when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction. This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are too many possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favor of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start. The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic learning, to distinguish it from individual learning that an animal does in the cause of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behavior is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways. Question:"Genetic learning" refers to ________.
A.learning after an animal is born
B.learning obtained by some members of each generation who happen to behave properly
C.learning gained by all the members in a species
D.learning gained by young animals from their experience
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8.He came back late, ____ which time all the guests had already left.
A.after
B.by
C.at
D.during
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9.The company is small but promising. ____, I'll take the job.
A.In some cases
B.In case
C.In that case
D.In any case
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10.Anyone meeting Matthew Daniels for the first time could easily assume that he is the product of a conventional, even privileged childhood. With his well-spoken manner, his Ivy League education, and his business card reading "President, Massachusetts Family Institute," Mr. Daniels is the picture of youthful American success. But Daniels can tell a story that refutes those assumptions about his childhood. His father abandoned the family when he was 2. His mother took a job as a secretary. But on her way home one evening she was mugged, sustaining injuries that eventually left her unable to work, the family went on welfare. Growing up in New York's Spanish Harliem, Daniels was one of only four white students until ninth grade. Despite a difficult environment, he stayed out of trouble. He even won a full scholarship to Dartmouth College, graduating in 1985. How did he do it? He credits his mother's religious faith. "It's why I didn't end up like the guys in my neighborhood," he says. "Some went to prison." Although his father, a writer, didn't support the family, he maintained contact with his son, emphasizing the importance of books and education. Because of his experience, Daniels has become a passionate advocate of the two-parent family. He sees it as an institution under cultural siege, generally supported by "the person in the street" but too often dismissed by those in academic and media circles. Some of the groups, he says, have miscalculated the social consequences of "trying to convince people that there are all sorts of" alternative family forms. Even during law school, he encountered professors who were "openly hostile to the idea that we need two-parent families to have a healthy society." Reporters and academics may not be the only ones ambivalent about marriage. A new study of college textbooks finds that many texts on marriage paint a pessimistic view. They emphasize divorce and domestic violence, the report says, and focus far more on adult relationships and problems than on children's needs. Question:According to the passage, Daniels is a __________ man.
A.successful
B.conventional
C.privileged
D.unfortunate
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11.The house is dark. The Browns ____ to bed.
A.may go
B.should go
C.should have gone
D.must have gone
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12.After this first burst of creative energy, the Americans went along, North and South, for about a century with little change in their naming-habits. Biblical names continued to give color in New England, but elsewhere it was particularly true with women's names, in the middle and southern colonies, and the excessive use of Elizabeth, Ann, Mary, and Sarah was only saved by the also liberal use of variations such as Betsy, Sally, Nanny, Nancy, and Molly. The great German immigration of the early eighteenth century had some influence. Johann, often shortened to Hans, was by far the commonest name among these Germans, with Jocob and Heinrich following. Except where people continued to talk German, these names were rapidly Anglicized, and so increased the popularity of John, Jocob, and Henry. The Scotch-Irish immigration also exerted an influence by building up the already popular James, and adding Alexander and Archibald. About 1740 the use of middle names began to grow. Probably the Germans had some influence here, for they generally, even as immigrants, bore two given names, of which the first was usually Johann. Another strong influence was family pride, which led to the desire to preserve the mother's family name. Purely practical, as the towns grew larger, was the need to distinguish a man more clearly from others bearing the same names. Once started, the custom grew steadily to popularity until by 1850 the man without a middle name was in a small minority, as he has since remained. The use of the middle name soon produced another typical American habit. Since the full signature of three names was too long for practical purposes, men began to use merely the middle initial, and eventually the typical American was John Q. Public. In England, on the other hand, such a form is not used. An Englishman has to be J. Q. Public, J. Qincy Public, or John Quicy Public. Question:About 1740, ________.
A.the Germans began to use two given names
B.the Germans became practical and used different names
C.the Germans liked to preserve the mother's family name
D.the Germans' habit of using middle names began to influence the naming habit in America
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13.The children were surprised when the teacher had them ____ their books unexpectedly.
A.closed
B.to close
C.closing
D.close
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14.They all returned to the village ____ that the danger was over.
A.convincing
B.convinced
C.to convince
D.having convinced
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15.Forty to sixty percent of genetically modified organisms are finding their way to the produce departments. That process involves taking a gene from one plant or animal and putting it in another. "So now, we make these changes in the laboratory and put these changes back into corn by the new technology," Dr. Curtis Hannah said.Not all consumers are pleased that researchers are tinkering with food that finds its way to American dinner tables. Opponents say that some produce is laced with pesticide to make them drug resistant. Labeling advocate Jodette Green said that foods that have been genetically engineered need to be labeled.A Massachusetts watchdog group said that a local supermarket chain is selling a pancake mix containing genetically engineered ingredients that aren't listed on the label.News Center 5's Rhondella Richardson reports that MassPIRG launched its Safe Food Campaign on Thursday, calling for accurate labeling and better testing of genetically modified food.MassPIRG said that packages of Shaw's Pancake Mix contain GM food, but they aren't labeled as such. "There's no info about the potentially dangerous DNA contained in this pancake mix," Jill Rubin of MassPIRG said at an afternoon press conferenceCereal and many soy and corn products are genetically modified, but they often don't say so on the label. There are not rules or regulations requiring such information on nutrition labels.MassPIRG believes that childhood ear and sinus infections could soon be incurable and that the consumption of genetically engineered food creates more food allergies.Shaw's pancake mix has not caused any known health problems, but many feel that better labeling shouldn't be too hard for a store to swallow. "I want to know what's in everything I buy," shopper Alexander Grieco said. "I have high blood pressure and high cholesterol."MassPIRG targeted Shaw's Supermarkets in its campaign because the Shaw's parent company in London has voluntarily removed all genetically engineered ingredients from its store brand products.A local Shaw's spokesperson said that in England, there was a lack of direction from the government on what to do when consumers questioned product safety. The Food and Drug Administration has found nothing unsafe so far, and Shaw's awaits direction from the FDA before any product is recalled. Question:It can be inferred from the text that __________.
A.cereal and many soy and corn products are genetically modified but the fact is never made known to consumers
B.food allergies might be caused by consuming genetically engineered food
C.consumers don't care about the genetically engineered ingredients
D.the E
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16.When there are small children around, it is necessary to put bottles of pills out of ____.
A.hand
B.hold
C.place
D.reach
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17.Also serving to produce a distinctive usage was the practice of distinguishing a son from a father by the use of Junior. This typically American practice began in the middle of the eighteenth century when most gentlemen had some knowledge of Latin and were familiar with the use of the term Junior, translated often into English as "the younger," as applied to such Latin worthies as Cato and Pliny. The practice was so well established by 1776 that three signers of the Declaration added the Jr. Agai. British custom has been different; the second of a pair of great statesmen is known as William Pitt, the younger. Still another important movement beginning around 1750 was the rise of the name Charles. Earlier, Charles is hardly found at all in New England, and is rare in the other colonies. After that its growth was not only steady but even spectacular. By 1850 it had become one of the commonest names, and it has remained close to the top since that time. Its curious nickname, Chuck, is typically American. Almost at an equal pace with the rise of Charles, the use of Biblical names, even in New England, began to fall off. Ebenezer, and even Samuel and Benjamin, came to have about them an old-fashioned aura. The facts are clear enough; the causes remain obscure. Immigration probably had little to do with such changes. English influence, at the ideal level, may have helped the growth of Charles. During these same decades the name was increasing in popularity there, where Sir Charles Grandison was a much read novel and Bonie Prince Charlie had given the name a renewed vogue among those who still held sentimentally to the Stuarts. But most of the other new developments seem to be wholly native and even to run counter to British practice. Question:Which of the following is true in the end of the eighteenth century?
A.The use of Biblical names remained popular.
B.The growing use of names such as Ebenezer and Samuel showed an interest in religion.
C.Samuel, Benjamin and Ebenezer were names no longer used by people.
D.Names such as Ebenezer became old-fashioned.
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18.He often wrote to the writers ____ he thought would help him to become a writer, too.
A.whom
B.who
C.when
D.because
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19.California-born and Stanford-educated, John Steinbeck gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a novelist who combined themes of social protest with a benign view of human nature and a biological interpretation of human experience, a combination that gained him wide popularity and provided the basis for a career not only in fiction but also in journalism, the theater, and films. John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr., was born in 1902, in the Salinas Valley, whose scenery, agricultural workers, and ne'er-do-well paisanos appear frequently in his fiction. His father was treasurer of Monterey County, and his mother was a former schoolteacher. Their library introduced him early to such standard authors as Milton, Dostoevsky, Flaubert, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. He was a contributor to the school newspaper, a varsity athlete, and president of his graduating class in high school, and he attended Stanford University sporadically between 1920 and 1925, majoring in English, but never finished the degree. He worked on ranches and on a road gang before trying futilely to establish himself as a writer during a brief stay in New York City in 1926, and he worked in a California fish hatchery and camped in the Sierras before publishing his first novel, Cup of Gold, in 1929. In those years he read D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, and particularly the novelists James Branch Cabelland, Hemingway with enthusiasm, but his perennial interests were the classics of Continental literature and the ancient historians. In 1930 he married and moved to Pacific Grove, California, where his father provided a house and small allowance to support him. Two unsuccessful novels treating the enchantment of the American Dream and the cost of pursuing it (The Pastures of Heaven, 1932, and To a God Unknown, 1933) preceded his first successes, Tortilla Flat in 1935 and In Dubious Battle in 1936. The first was an episodic, warmly humorous treatment of a band of paisanos (a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Caucasian strands). Their picturesque and shiftless ways, naive affection for their church, mystical appreciation of nature, and loyalty to their band are given the air of legend and likened to the tales of King Arthur's Round Table. The second deals with a strike among fruit pickers, its defeat by the landowners with their vigilantes, and the efforts of communist organizers first to organize the strike and then to exploit the workers. Question:Steinbeck's first success as a writer was ________.
A.Cup of Gold
B.The Pastures of Heaven
C.To a God Unknown
D.Tortilla Flat
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20.There are no seats ____ for those who are late for the show.
A.available
B.enough
C.supplied
D.make
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21.There used to be a church behind the cemetery,____?
A.didn’t there
B.used there
C.usedn’t it
D.didn’t it
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22.The trip will be ____ till next week because of the bad weather.
A.put out
B.put off
C.put on
D.put up
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23.It is not easy ____ the answer to the difficult math problem.
A.to figure out
B.figuring out
C.figure out
D.being figured out
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24.Mary never tells anyone what she does for a ____.
A.job
B.work
C.profession
D.living
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25.After this first burst of creative energy, the Americans went along, North and South, for about a century with little change in their naming-habits. Biblical names continued to give color in New England, but elsewhere it was particularly true with women's names, in the middle and southern colonies, and the excessive use of Elizabeth, Ann, Mary, and Sarah was only saved by the also liberal use of variations such as Betsy, Sally, Nanny, Nancy, and Molly. The great German immigration of the early eighteenth century had some influence. Johann, often shortened to Hans, was by far the commonest name among these Germans, with Jocob and Heinrich following. Except where people continued to talk German, these names were rapidly Anglicized, and so increased the popularity of John, Jocob, and Henry. The Scotch-Irish immigration also exerted an influence by building up the already popular James, and adding Alexander and Archibald. About 1740 the use of middle names began to grow. Probably the Germans had some influence here, for they generally, even as immigrants, bore two given names, of which the first was usually Johann. Another strong influence was family pride, which led to the desire to preserve the mother's family name. Purely practical, as the towns grew larger, was the need to distinguish a man more clearly from others bearing the same names. Once started, the custom grew steadily to popularity until by 1850 the man without a middle name was in a small minority, as he has since remained. The use of the middle name soon produced another typical American habit. Since the full signature of three names was too long for practical purposes, men began to use merely the middle initial, and eventually the typical American was John Q. Public. In England, on the other hand, such a form is not used. An Englishman has to be J. Q. Public, J. Qincy Public, or John Quicy Public. Question:In the early eighteenth century, the most popular name used by the German immigrants was ________.
A.Jocob
B.Heinrich
C.Henry
D.Hans
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